Female reproductive system terms of pregnancy

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-gravida Pregnancy Nulligravida (never pregnant), primigravida (first-time pregnant), multigravida (many pregnancies)
-para Live birth Nullipara (no live births), multipara (many live births)
Part/o, toc/o Labor/birth/delivery Prepartum, postpartum (before and after delivery), dystocia (difficult delivery)

EXAMPLE: On an OB patient's chart you may see the abbreviations: gravida 3, para 2. This means three pregnancies, two live births. The OB patient, currently pregnant with her third baby, will become a Gravida 3, Para 3 after giving birth.

Complications of pregnancy

Abruptio placentae- (Latin, "breaking off"). Premature separation of a normally implanted placenta before full term. Occurs in only about 1% of pregnancies. However, it has a 20-40% fetal mortality rate and is a significant contributor to maternal mortality.

Placenta previa- (Latin, "leading the way"). A placenta implanted over the cervical region of the uterus blocking the entrance to the birth canal. Occurs in less than one percent of pregnancies, but can cause significant bleeding and require a complicated delivery.

Eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy )- a serious and life-threatening condition that may develop during pregnancy involving hypertension, convulsions and coma. A less severe form, preeclampsia, may develop but can be managed if identified and treated early.

Ectopic pregnancy- (Greek, "out of place"). A pregnancy implanted anywhere outside of the uterus. The uterine tube (Fallopian tube) is the most common location, also called a "tubal pregnancy". The abdominal cavity is the least common location. Occurs in about 2% of pregnancies. When it occurs, it is a surgical emergency, because the uterine tube cannot sustain tremendous expansion like the uterus. Eventually, the uterine tube will rupture with severe, possibly fatal, hemorrhaging.

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