Times are Changing: Evolution and Revolution in Medical Education
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Reaching and Teaching Millennial Learners
Generations are groups of individuals who are born or live at the same time and who share experiences and environmental influences by virtue of similar age. By extension and as a result of these shared experiences and environment, these groups often share attitudes, ideas, values, styles and problems.
In the US over the last nearly 100 years, there have been several distinct generations, commonly known as the “Silent” generation, the “Baby Boomers”, the Generation X, and now the “Millennial” Generation. Each generation has its own set of characteristics, defining moments and values, and shared conflicts and achievements.
These generational characteristics have had and continue to have significant influences on teaching and learning at all pedagogic levels. The current generation poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for medical educators. This session will review those challenges, including the growing body of literature about digital professionalism as well as the opportunities, including specific strategies for educators to enhance teaching and learning for Millennial trainees.
Teaching to Transform the Brain
Learning always follows the same biological process involving a physical change in the brain. This change, termed consolidation, is not just limited to long-term memory, but occurs for any part of the learning process. The conscious use of any given functional area of the brain will, therefore, consolidate that part of the learning process. The Experiential Learning Cycle (ELC) proposed by Kolb is a Constructivist model that can has been matched by Zull to the major functional areas of the cerebral cortex to provide insight into the use of teaching strategies. It will be proposed here that each functional area of the brain represents a different learning skill. The development of neglected learning skills through Deliberate Practice (DP) automatically produces self-directed problem solvers by balancing the ELC. Teacher-directed DP spontaneously evolves into learner-determined DP resulting in lifelong maintenance of expert learning skills. As such, this presentation will provide an argument that learning skills can be developed through DP, just as with clinical skills – because clinical skills, after all, are learning skills.
Adapt, Evolve or Become Extinct: Making Educational Change Work for You
The education of students at the preschool through University level is rapidly changing, and instructors who understand the basis of these changes will be most effective educators. Most of the curriculum innovations are developed and supported by research on teaching and learning. This presentation will review the impact of Bloom’s Taxonomy, Knowles’ theory of the Adult Learner, and Kolb’s 4-Stage Learning Cycle on the classroom and curriculum.
Assessment of learning is also changing, moving from measuring knowledge (learning objectives) to skills (competencies). In the shift to competencies, today’s mentor must stimulate and monitor the professional development of their students and trainees. In USA, medical residents are assessed by competencies which include Medical Knowledge, Patient Care, Practice-Based Learning and Improvement, Interpersonal and Communication Skills, Ethics and Medical Professionalism, and Systems-Based Practice. In this changing environment, the essential role of the teacher remains unchanged: to create an effective learning environment, to provide direction for the learner, and to model effective learning behaviors.
Novel Assessment Strategies in an Integrated Curriculum
Discuss the general scheme of assessment and some of the specific assessment techniques and instruments used to evaluate undergraduate medical students at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine. The focus of this system of assessment is to both evaluate traditional medical student competencies as well as the ability of students to apply basic medical knowledge to clinical scenarios and link basic and clinical science. Additionally, our assessments aim to provide meaningful feedback to students in the form of developmental, competency-based milestones.
Topics highlighted in this session will be: (1) overview of the assessment scheme at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, (2) use of a regular “Reflection, Integration and Assessment” week to provide opportunities for both summative and formative assessment of students, (3) assessment of higher-order learning in traditional laboratory courses, and (4) assessment in Case-Based Learning: Use of self and group assessments in sessions and in weekly follow-up essays.
Basic Medical Science Course Directors in Integrated Medical Curricula
Discuss the creation of an integrated systems block curriculum from the perspective a basic medical scientist. During the first two years of the Phoenix track of the ArizonaMed curriculum, the curriculum is designed in blocks that integrate the traditional basic science disciplines (physiology, anatomy, pathology, etc.) into organ systems and disease units. Clinical content and skills are progressively integrated with basic science subjects. Woven through the blocks are curricular themes covering such topics as behavioral science, ethics and humanism, bioinformatics, population and public health.
The following questions will be discussed: (1) what are the challenges for a basic scientist in designing integrated courses, (2) what resources are most helpful, (3) how do you orient a clinician to teaching in the preclinical years, and (4) How do you choose your subject matter and prioritize what really needs to be taught?